E-selectin gene (S128R) polymorphism in hemorrhagic stroke: Comparison with ischemic stroke
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Increasing evidence suggests that genetic variation in inflammatory genes plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of E-selectin S128R polymorphism with hemorrhagic stroke and also to evaluate the genotypic and allelic variation with ischemic stroke in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. In this study, we recruited 250 hemorrhagic stroke patients along with 250 age and sex matched controls. The genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP method and the strength of association between genotypes and hemorrhagic stroke was determined by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and chi-square analysis. Allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphism differed significantly between hemorrhagic stroke patients and controls (p < 0.001). Significant association was also found following dominant (p < 0.001) and co-dominant (p < 0.001) models. On comparing the genotypic and allelic frequencies between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke significant difference was found between the two stroke types (p < 0.001). In conclusion, we found the AC genotype to be a significant risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke and we also found significant differences in AC genotype and C allele among the two stroke types. The genotypic and allelic variation between the ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, suggests that E-selectin S128R mediated amplification of leukocytes onto endothelial cells, leading to secondary damage of brain cells is more pronounced in hemorrhagic stroke. ? 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.