Neoliberal Politics: A Study of Restructuring of the Indian State
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Neoliberal Politics refers to 'economic rationalism', which is based on the efficiency of market forces and characterised it by minimal government intervention. It emerged in contrast to the welfare state model, in which the state takes responsibility for protection and socio-economic well-being of its citizens. On the other side, the neoliberal politics claims that the well-being of human can be forwarded by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills through private property rights, free market and free trade within the institutional framework. In post-independence era, Indian founding fathers constitute the developmental state structure for the welfare of the citizens. With the passage of time welfare state's institutional inefficiencies, government's unfinished distributive programmes, and slow economic progress induced the government towards neoliberal politics. Hence, in the wake of neoliberal politics in the 1980s, the Indian government has begun to transform the developmental path. Hereafter, the government has started to the institutional restructuring of the state and constituted new institutions for private entrepreneur lead development. As a result, the developmental state system has been restructured in order to free market system. With this background, the study has made an attempt to relook democratic socialist character of the Indian state and its journey from close to open market (1950 to 2014). After analysing the associated impacts on the democratic process and social welfare imperatives, the study concludes that the neoliberal politics has restructured the state institutions from the commanding control of the market system to the regulation based market system.