Ecocritical Study of Kalidasa’s Lyrics and Selected Poems of William Wordsworth
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The present thesis is based on an Ecocritical analysis of the selected poems of Kalidasa and Wordsworth from a comparative perspective. The main focus of the thesis is to explore the ecological consciousness and aesthetics as manifested in the selected texts; further, the thesis endeavors to construct the organic relationship depicted between the natural world and human culture in both the poets. The thesis traces the evolution of Ecocriticism over the time; different issues of ecocriticism such as ecology, deep ecology, social ecology, romantic ecology, wilderness, and environmental aesthetics, are likewise investigated in the selected texts. The thesis through the study of the selected works of both the writers tries to show how both the writers envision an idealistic view of life which would empower humans to achieve maximum synchronization and interdependence with their natural or physical environment. Kalidasa represented the Hindu way of life in ancient India; his works mirror the socio-cultural milieu of the ancient India, and a system of shared moral and ethical values towards Nature can be gleaned from his works. In the poetry of Kalidasa, Nature is cherished with a profound spiritual passion; for him, Nature speaks to divine balance, divine music, and heavenly harmony. Kalidasa doesn’t merely use nature as an idealised setting for his works but endows it with living attributes and v a personality of its own. While Wordsworth may represent a cloud, Kalidasa sees the cloud in Meghaduta as having a fully developed consciousness; both the poets invalidate the idea of customary anthropocentrism and support ecocentrism. Wordsworth believes that man is a part of nature and nature is a holistic living organism; he believes in the equality of the natural and the human world, the former is not subservient to the latter. Wordsworth considers it indispensable to have an ethical attitude of humility and the reverence to reestablish the severed connections between humans and the natural habitat. Thus, both Kalidasa and Wordsworth can be seen as eco-spiritual poet-thinkers, remarkable for their ecological consciousness and aesthetics, and could be considered precursors of the present-day environmentalists, and ecologists.