Neuroprotective role of apocynin against pentylenetetrazole kindling epilepsy and associated comorbidities in mice by suppression of ROS/RNS
Jaiswal G., Kumar P.
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Epilepsy is a neurological disease that transpires due to the unusual synchronized neuronal discharge within the central nervous system, which drives repetitious unprovoked seizures. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is a complex enzyme accountable for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity, memory impairment, vitiates normal cellular processes, long term potentiation, and thus, implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Therefore, the present study was sketched to examine the neuroprotective effect of apocynin, NADPH oxidase inhibitor in pentylenetetrazole kindling epilepsy, and induced comorbidities in mice. Mice (either sex) were given pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day up to 29 days, and a challenge test was executed on the 33rd day. Pretreatment with apocynin (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was carried out from 1st to 33rd day. Rotarod and open field test were performed on the 1st, 10th, 20th, and 30th days of the study. Animals were tutored on the morris water maze from 30th to 33rd day, and the retention was registered on the 34th day. Tail suspension test and elevated plus maze were sequentially performed on the 32nd and 33rd day of the study. On the 34th day, animals were sacrificed, and their brains were isolated to conduct biochemical estimation. NADPH oxidase activation due to chronic pentylenetetrazole treatment resulted in generalized tonic-clonic seizures, enhanced oxidative stress, remodeled neurotransmitters' level, and resulted in comorbidities (anxiety, depression, and memory impairment). Pretreatment with apocynin significantly restricted the pentylenetetrazole induced seizure severity, ROS production, neurotransmitter alteration, and comorbid conditions by inhibiting the NADPH oxidase enzyme. © 2021
Behavioural Brain Research