Methods to Assess Oxidative DNA Base Damage Repair of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic (AP) Sites Using Radioactive and Nonradioactive Oligonucleotide-Based Assays
Gupta K.B., Kaur S., Dhiman M., Mantha A.K.
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction results in oxidative stress leading to genomic instability via the generation of small base lesions in the genome, and this unrepaired DNA base damage leads to various cellular consequences. The oxidative stress-mediated DNA base damage is involved in various human disorders like cancer, cardiovascular, ocular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Base excision repair (BER) pathway, one of the DNA repair pathways, is majorly involved in the repair of oxidative DNA base lesions, which utilizes a different set of enzymes, including endonuclease viz Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 is a well-known multifunctional enzyme with DNA repair, REDOX regulatory, and protein-protein interaction/cross-talk functions associated with the cell survival mechanisms. APE1 acts as an important player in both normal and cancerous cell survival; thus, evaluating its endonuclease activity in the biological samples provide useful readout of the DNA repair capacity/ability, which can be used to tune for the development of therapeutic candidates via either stimulating or blocking its DNA repair function in normal vs. cancer cells, respectively. This chapter enlists two methods used for the determination of APE1's endonuclease activity by oligonucleotide-based radioactive P32-labeled and nonradioactive fluorescence dyes using the cell extracts and recombinant APE1 protein. © 2022. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)