Migration, transnationalism, and ambivalence: The Punjab-United Kingdom linkage
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This chapter investigates developments in the Punjab-UK transnational space, a long-standing and extensive migration corridor. Within India?s diverse migration history, Punjab?s specificity is its particular historical connection with the UK, despite criss-crossing colonial and postcolonial migrations across the globe. We juxtapose field research in the UK and Punjab and show that transnationalism appears and works differently when viewed from either location-highlighting the differentially empowered nature of transnational space, as well as irresolvable ambivalences that are worked into transnational relationships. We reconsider the transnationalism paradigm through five interrelated arguments. We demonstrate the complexity of transnational space, which exceeds the binary sending-receiving country relationship that characterizes the literature. We find that transnationalism is not merely produced ?from below? by the activities of migrants and diaspora, but is orchestrated and formalized by various arms of the Indian and British states. Moreover, illicit flows of people are also produced by the governance of migration. Transnational connectivity does not diminish individuals? desire for a single, solid citizenship and nationality beyond the pragmatism attached with citizenship. Finally, we argue for historicizing of transnational networks and appreciation of the social relations of gender, generation, class, and caste by which they are cleaved. ? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.
Migration and Transformation: Multi-Level Analysis of Migrant Transnationalism