Histopathological staging in putative prostate cancer tissues and reviewing litearture of correlation between prostate specific antigen levels and prostate cancer inci. 2012.
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Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most significant cause of cancer specific mortality in elderly men. Asymptomatic behavior, non-modifiable risk factors and metastatic nature is the main problem of PCa. It remains clinically silent and presents itself only at advanced stage. Thus, diagnosing PCa at an early stage can result in increased chances of better treatment and hence, increased survival rate. An accurate biomarker can detect the cancer at an early stage and hence, at curable stage. Clinical parameters can only suspect prostate cancer. Whereas, histopathological examination can establish definite diagnosis of PCa. Various histological patterns are associated with cancer aggressiveness. Therefore, better understanding of clinical relevance of these histopathological findings can help to evaluate a robust biomarker for early detection of PCa. Present study was divided into two parts. First part was aimed to study the histopathology of putative prostate cancer tissue specimens. In second part, the literature of association of pre-operative serum prostate specific antigen levels with cancer detection and aggressiveness was reviewed. Protocol for histopathology of prostate tissues was established. Results of histopathological findings in putative PCa specimens were evaluated. Prevalence of histological PCa was not found in putative PCa tissues. Image library of results of the study was prepared for future analysis. Review of literature of correlation of serum PSA levels with PCa incidence suggests that PSA screening for PCa is a two-sided debate. No doubt that PSA holds the probability of detecting early PCa before development of symptoms; certain v limitations are associated with it. First, it is not reported to be 100% accurate. Second, it generates false positive and false negative results. A false positive result leads to over-treatment whereas a false negative result generates false sense of security against PCa in patient, both affects quality of life. Another main concern with PSA screening is its inability to differentiate between indolent and aggressive cancer. Therefore; accurate and economical molecular biomarkers for early detection and distinction of indolent versus aggressive cancer are urgently required. Until such biomarkers are developed and more convincing evidences regarding efficacy of PSA screening becomes available, research should focus on improving the diagnostic clinical utility of PSA by utilizing novel PSA isoforms. Identifying and validating correlation of serum PSA with tissue PSA and histological grade would be beneficial in terms of requirement of less invasive diagnostic methods to be used to measure PSA expression level as well as to confirm PCa. Future research may focus on evaluating the histological expression of other putative biomarkers and comparative serum proteomic profiling in different PCa stages.
- Mphil Thesis 
- Plant Sciences-Mphil Thesis 
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