Phytochemical investigation and biological evaluation of secondary metabolites from asparagus racemosus l through in-vitro and in-silico approach
Nature has been a source of medicinal products for millennia, and with many useful drugs developed from different natural resources, with majority of drugs are from plant origin. Asparagus racemosus belonging to family liliaceae, is one such important medicinal plant. This plant species is used traditionally in India and other parts of the world in epilepsy, Vaat disorders, brain tonic, hypertension, hepatoprotection, immunostimulant and antiabortifacient. In this context, the aim of the present study was to explore the roots of A.racemosus in terms of its medicinal values for instances antimutagenic, and advanced glycation end-product inhibitor. Antimutagenic activity of different extracts were evaluated using Ames test. A. racemosus methanolic extract (RME) and aqueous extract (RAE) have been found to have effective in the inhibition mutation induced by NPD and sodium azide. Among the two extracts, RAE and RME showed maximum inhibition of 49.2%, and 40.63% in Co-incubation mode respectively. The inhibition of BSA-glucose for the determination of antiglycation activity showed that the inhibition varied significantly among different extracts of A. racemosus. The highest inhibition measured by BSA-glucose was observed for (Ethyl acetate extract) REE (IC50 37.56 ± 1.65 ?g/mL) followed by (methanolic extract) RME (IC50 51.32 ± 1.48 ?g/mL). Isolation of molecules from methanol extract led to the characterisation of one molecule v namely nyasol out of total seven isolated molecules. The molecular docking study of isolated molecule Nyasol displayed strong binding affinity with estrogen receptor ? and estrogen receptor ?, indicating that Nyasol is beneficial in hormone responsive breast cancer. Moreover, in-silico study of already reported phytoestrogens from A.racemosus was also carried out using Glide docking to investigate interaction pattern with Human placental estrone sulphatases (1P49), human 17?-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 (1FDS), human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (2BH9) and tubulin protein receptors. The top docking score was obtained for rutin (estrogen receptor ?), 3,6,4'-trimethoxy-7-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl [1?4]-O-?-D-xylopyranoside glucopyranpsyl (HSP90), 8-Methoxy-5,6,4-trihydroxyisoflavone-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (human placental estrone sulphatase), Shatavarin X (17?-hydroxydehydrogenase`), Racemoside A (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), Immunoside (Colchicine binding site of tubulin). The results indicated that phytoestrogens are likely potential candidate for controlling tumor progression with a special emphasis in breast cancer progression.