Anticancer activity of cassia fistula linn through invitro and insilicoapproach
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Cassia fistula L. (Leguminoseae) is a plant species called "Aragvadha" that means "disease killer". C. fistula consists of plethora of medicinal properties. A detailed discussion is depicted of the therapeutic potential and chemical composition of C. fistula that is responsible for its highly important medicinal properties. C. fistula contains many chemical components like anthraquinones, anthocyanindins, proanthocyanidins, flavanoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins, coumarins, tannins, etc. These constituents are reported to possess various biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antitumor, antimelasmic activities etc. In the current dissertation work we limited our study to cancer; specifically, Lung cancer (LC) and Breast cancer (BC) which are spread all over the world to a threatening level. The present study is an effort to contribute to such a multi-targeting moiety from the plant C. fistula, on the basis of in vitro and simulated analysis. To explore the anticancer activity of C. fistula; in vitro (cytotoxicity studies) on different extracts and in silico studies using MMGBSA (Molecular Mechanics - the Generalized Born model and Solvent Accessibility) on the earlier reported molecules was performed; to study protein - ligand binding interactions on four different targets. The different extracts (Petroleum v ether (SVA-1) (for defatting), Ethyl acetate (SVA-2), Methanol (SVA-3), Hydro- methanolic (SVA-4) Extracts) were prepared in order of their increasing polarity. In- vitro cytotoxicity studies done using MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the extracts of plant and their IC50 values were calculated. It was performed to identify plant's cytotoxic activity. Targets studied via performing in silico protein-ligand binding interactions of majorly mutated yet interlinked pathways of tyrosine kinase and serine/ threonine kinase family; that are namely EGFR, PI3K, Akt and mTOR receptors on which reported molecules of plant were studied. In silico studies were performed using maestro 9.6 Schrodinger software. MMGBSA and ADMET analysis were performed to discover and understand protein - ligand interactions between the chosen ligands of Cassia fistula and selected kinase receptors. On conducting MMGBSA (Molecular Mechanics ' the Generalized Born model and Solvent Accessibility) studies 5,3,4-tri-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-?-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside along with few other moieties illustrated fine binding interactions against standard inhibitors of all the protein targets. From in vitro experiment, it was found that Hydromethanolic extract (SVA-4) showed prominent cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A-549 and H-460 cell lines particularly near 50?g/ml of concentration. Results were found in comparable with the NCI criteria limits for IC50 values of extracts obtained in assay. Also extracts were stable in DMSO solvent even when kept at the ambient temperature for 30 days and gave consistent results against cancer cell lines. As per the results of the in silico studies, the 5,3,4-tri- hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (dG Bind score -98.7866kcal/mol) for EGFR in comparison to gefitinib (dG Bind score - 86.5585kcal/mol); (dG Bind score -87.3524kcal/mol) for Akt as compared to AZD 5363 (dG Bind score -76.5959); (dG Bind score -87.1051kcal/mol) for PI3K as compared to wortmannin (dG Bind score -79.0654kcal/mol) and for mTOR it has shown the (dG Bind score of -81.964kcal/mol) against sirolimus (dG Bind score -192.354kcal/mol) is reported to have fair pharmacokinetic profile along with attractive binding interactions with EGFR, PI3K, Akt and mTOR receptors.